Теоретический анализ представлений о смерти в отечественной психологии


In the context of the phenomenon of death in the national psychology it is necessary to mention such names as S. L. Rubinstein, L. I. Antsiferova, K. A. Abulkhanova-Slavskaya, V. M. Bekhterev and B. G. Ananiev.

S. L. Rubinstein and his school considered the phenomenon of death in the structure of individuals way of life.

it Can be concluded that S. L. Rubinstein's personality is his life, his work; this individual is an active person, building the conditions of life and their attitude to it; the subject of the life of man becomes, if it begins a responsible approach to life itself and its elections. In life you cannot ignore such an existential problem, as the attitude to life and death. Since man's awareness of the finality of his life he was faced with the problem of responsibility for all their actions and missed it. The existence of death gives rise to a serious attitude towards life and commitments to other people to take care of them, to do something for them while you can. The seriousness of these obligations is compounded by the fact that they may expire at any time. This is the tragedy of death.

Death determines the content, direction, existential intensity and existential limits of life. The attitude of the subject to its own death, is determined by the degree of perfection, completeness of life plan, vital business to the time of death and the degree of need for it other people it makes you leave and leave them to their fate death. The awareness of death opens life in a new perspective and forces us to reconsider our values, causes a desire to live your life now and understanding that it cannot endlessly defer (Rubinstein, 1997).

L. I. Antsiferova, student S. L. Rubinstein considers the problem of death in a different vein, she argues that in a diverse experience of life's most painful moments are the meetings with the tragedy of death, with the passing away of dear to him people. For most people not their own death, but the loss of dear loved ones is the most painful event in my life. The death of a dear person narrows, impoverishes, limits the life of the loving, he loses part of himself. The thought of approaching death or the death of a loved one is experienced as something unnatural, as something that cannot fit in the mind of the individual (Antsyferova L. I., 1997).

In the works of L. I. Antsyferova we can find examples of where human consciousness does not fit the tragic situation, there is a denial of reality; people may never get out of depression and decides to voluntarily withdraw from life. But man must rise above his grief - so says the author - and he often re-interpret different aspects of the tragic events that begins to relate them with the tragic situations experienced by other people, he's writing down his grief to the structure of the life disasters of other people, this social comparison makes it much easier to individual experiences.

In human nature inherent desire to experience the fullness of life even reflected in the painful experiences – this conclusion makes author. People in any state can find, if not joy, then the meaning of his life and we are facing a major choice — to find the meaning of life and to affirm it in every way possible or to give death, despair, hopelessness. This position is close to the views of V. Frankl, founder of Logotherapy, who believed that man makes basal choice is between life and death (L. I. Antsyferova, 1997).

In our opinion, L. I. Antsyferova touched upon the most important aspect of the problem of death – not his own, but the death of loved ones excite us the most, and here we fully agree with the author.

K. A. Abulkhanova-Slavske, another student of S. L. Rubinstein considers the problems of organization identity the time of her life. The life time is derived from the interaction of the individual with the objective reality. In this sense life is something that has managed to make himself a man in these circumstances, in this socio-historical time.

the Author believes that in our minds the idea of the finiteness of life has made events such as war, disaster, terror. There was a fear of sudden death. People have realized that the scale of the society was the devaluation of life that it depends on chance, easily sacrificed (Abulkhanova – Slavske K. A.; Berezina, T. N., 2001).

K. A. Abulkhanova-Slavske, we find the idea that man lives with a sense of insecurity, constantly impending danger, helplessness in the face of death.

V. M. Bekhterev, the outstanding Russian medic-psychiatrist, founder of reflexology and pathopsychological field in Russia, the theory of which is of interest, believes that reconciliation with his upcoming death, permanent preparedness should direct the creative activity of man for the common good, to make their lives non-profit.

the Author believes that it is not afraid of death, those who realize that they served the cause with honor doing his duty. Man should realize the meaning of his death, i.e. to reach an understanding of what she is – the rescue of others, the protection of beliefs, the good of humanity, etc. and this view is opposite the view of L. I. Antsyferova that you need to look for the meaning of life, not death.

Like all philosophers and psychologists, V. M. Bekhterev spoke about his understanding of the fear of death. For him, it is the unknown, what will happen after death and the future turning into nothing. The author we also find thoughts on how to overcome this fear. The most important condition for overcoming the fear of death is the acceptance of death as natural, expected, and natural events all the time live life. People should find reconciliation with the final period of his life, which is allotted to him for execution of its creative work.

Feel the fear of death proves that the man considers himself as something self-contained and separate from the world that seemed to lose his existence together with death. We get bogged down in the details of his life so that we forget about the eternal institution of death and only remember about it when death hits other when on the street moving funeral procession, and even in these moments we don't always think about the hour, which will inevitably come for us. Meanwhile, it is necessary to remember more often to invigorate themselves in activities that encourage thoughts about the connection of our identity with all of humanity – concludes V. M. Bekhterev (Bekhterev V. M., 1999).

the Last one we consider in our work of Russian psychologists, a follower of V. M. Bekhterev and B. G. Ananiev, founder of the St. Petersburg school, which focused on human nature.

He first introduced the category of "person" in the system of psychological concepts, included a person in the subject of psychology.

B. G. Ananiev, analyzing the life path, allocated in the periods of preparation, launch, stabilization, peaking, temporary downturn, recovery, followed by the finish. The author explained that the paradox of human life is that many people dying is much earlier than the physical decrepitude. This condition is seen in those people who on their own begin to isolate themselves from society, renouncing many of the functions and roles in society, which leads to deformation of the personality structure. (B. G. Ananiev, 2010).

Thus, we can conclude that the safety of the individual in later years depends on the level of social activity. If a person has not lost a living link with the present, continues to perform some public function, it does not occur deformation.

it Should be noted that a special significance in our time takes the position of B. G. Ananiev about the fact that even in the face of public disasters man is the subject of its relations with the world and can find new ways of inclusion in society.

so, we can note the similarity of concepts by Russian psychologists with the theories of Russian psychologists of the existential-humanistic direction. All authors we find thoughts about what the fear of death and how to overcome it, and everyone expresses their interpretation, but through the idea in all theories – the death of a terrible thing, and every human characteristic fear of it.


1. Abulkhanova – Slavske K. A., Berezina, T. N. Time of personality and lifetime. SPb.: Aletheia, 2001. - 304 p.

2. Ananiev B. G. Man as an object of knowledge. Edition 3. – SPb.: Peter, 2010. – 288 p.

3. Antsyferova L. I. the Person in the face of life and death //Russian mentality, the Issues of psychological theory and practice, Moscow, 1997. P. 44-55

4. Bekhterev V. M. Immortality human personality as a scientific problem. SPb.: Aletheia, 1999. Pp. 20-23.

5. Rubinstein S. L. Man and the world - M.: Nauka, 1997. – 190 s.

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